1) Verily the two ‘Eid prayers are rites, signs and symbols of Islaam and it is not normal to establish these rites and symbols upon Mandoobaat acts that can be performed just as they can be left but rather it would be considered a rite, symbol or symbols when it is established upon the obligations of the Deen. In relation to the two ‘Eid prayers Islaam has tied other rituals to it that are not established and not performed until it has been completed. So in Hajj there are many rituals including the slaughtering of the sacrifices on the day of ‘Eid which rests upon the performance of the ritual of the ‘Eid Salaah. As such it can’t be conceived that the Salaah of ‘Eid be Mandoob and susceptible (open) to being performed or left whilst through leaving it rituals of Hajj will be suspended. Al-Baraa Bin ‘Aazib (ra) said:
<<The Messenger of Allah (saw) addressed us on the day of Al-Adhaa after the Salaah and said: Whoever offers the prayer like us and slaughters like us then his Nusuk (sacrifice) will be accepted by Allah. And whoever slaughters his sacrifice before the `Id prayer then he has not done the sacrifice…>> as recorded by Al-Bukhaari. In another report from Bukhaari also from Al-Baraa (ra) it said: <<The first thing that we should do on this day of ours is to pray and then return to slaughter the sacrifice. So anyone who does so, he acted according to our Sunnah (tradition), and whoever slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer, it was just meat which he presented to his family and would not be considered as Nusuk (the ritual)…>> and Allah (swt) says in Aayah two of Soorat-ul-Kauthar:
“So pray to your Lord and sacrifice”
2) That the Shar’a (Islamic legislation) has obligated obligations (Furood) and made their performance obligatory (waajib) and made the Furood higher than the Mandoobaat (recommended acts). If the Shar’a commands the performance of a Fard (obligation) and then we see that it has accepted the performance of another act in place of it then that indicates that the other action is Fard otherwise it would not have been able to replace the initial Fard. This is because the status of a Mandoob is less than a Fard and it is not Halaal for a Mandoob to take the place of a Fard and only a Fard can take the place of another Fard and this principle is easy to understand and accept. And it is known that the Shar’a has obligated Salaat-uzh-Zhohr and then we have seen that Salaat-ul-Jumu’ah has replaced the Zhohr prayer on Friday and from this we can understand that the Jumu’ah prayer is Fard otherwise it would not have been able to take the place of the obligatory Zhohr prayer. Then we see that the Shar’a has ordered performing the ‘Eid prayers on the day of Jumu’ah and in doing so the obligation of performing Jumu’ah is lifted. Meaning that whoever prays the ‘Eid prayers on the day of Jum’ah then the obligation of the Jumu’ah prayer falls from him and is not understood from this that had the ‘Eid prayers not been obligatory then how do they take the place of the Jum’ah and caused the obligation of the Jum’ah prayer to be dropped? And is it possible for a recommended prayer to cause an obligatory prayer to be dropped? Wahb Bin Kaisaan related: <<I saw Ibn Az-Zubair in Makkah whilst he was the Ameer and it occurred that the day of Fitr or Adhaa fell on the day of Jum’ah so they delayed going out until the day had come. He came out and ascended the Minbar and addressed us for a while, he then prayed two Rak’ah but did not pray Jum’ah so some people from Banu Umayyah Bin Abd-sh-Shams complained about it. That reached Ibn ‘Abbaas and he said: Ibn Az-Zubair was correct and upon the Sunnah and Ibn Az-Zubair heard and said: I saw ‘Umar Ibn l-Khattaab (ra) doing this when the day of ‘Eid was on the same day as Jum’ah>> as related by Ibn Khuzaimah and An-Nasaa’i. Ibn Daawood related it without mentioning: (Ibn Az-Zubair heard about it…). Iyyaas Bin Abi Ramlah Ash-Shaami related: <<I heard a man asking Zaid Bin Arqam: Did you witness at the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw) two ‘Eids in one day? He replied: Yes. He said: So what did you do? He said: He prayed the ‘Eid and then made a Rukhsah (permission to leave) for the Jum’ah. He then said: Whoever wants to pray can pray>> as related by Ibn Maajah, Abu Daawood and Ahmad. Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) related from the Messenger of Allah (saw) that he said: <<Two ‘Eids have been brought together on this day, Whosoever from amongst you wishes, then this Salaat (Eid) will suffice him for Jum’ah.
We will soon gather again if Allah wills >>as related by Ibn Maajah and it was also reported from Abu Hurairah and recorded by Ibn Maajah, Abu Daawood and Al-Haakim and the evidential meaning of these texts is clear.
3) That the Shar’a does not oblige the women to leave their homes to perform the obligatory prayers and encouraged them to perform these prayers in their houses and this is applied to the five obligatory prayers and Salaat-ul-Jum’ah. Women performing the obligatory prayer in their houses is therefore preferred than them performing it in the Masaajid and this is a general rule (‘Aamm) and the only exemption is for the two ‘Eid prayers. In this case we find that the Shar’a has ordered, encouraged and urged the women to leave their houses to perform the two ‘Eid prayers. This encouraging has reached such an extent that the Shar’a did not make an exception for any woman and instructed that the young, old and even the menstruating women should go out for the ‘Eid Salaah and that the women who does not possess a Jilbaab (garment covering the entire body) should borrow one from another woman so that she can leave, so what does all of this indicate? Is it requested that the women leave praying the five obligatory prayers and Jum’ah in the Masaajid and yet when we see that they have been requested to come out for the ‘Eid prayer we say that the ‘Eid prayers are only Mandoob and Mustahabb? This is far from the correct view and it cannot be conceived that the Shar’a would command the women to perform the Furood in their houses and then order them to leave to fulfil a Mandoob. All of this therefore indicates and guides to the opinion that the two ‘Eid prayers are Fard and Waajib. Umm ‘Atiyah (ra) said:
<<We used to be ordered to come out on the Day of `Eid and even bring out the virgin girls from their houses and menstruating women so that they might stand behind the men and say Takbeer along with them and invoke Allah along with them and hope for the blessings of that day and for purification from sins>> as recorded by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim and in a second narration from Al-Bukhaari from ‘Atiyah she said: <<We were ordered to go out (for `Id) and take along with us the young girls and those staying in seclusion>>. Al-Bukhaari also related from Hafsah (ra) similar to this: <<She said: the young and those kept in seclusion and the menstruating women who are kept away from the Musalla (prayer place)>> and AlBukhaari and Muslim related another Hadeeth from Umm ‘Atiyah in which she said: <<We were ordered to go out (for `Id) and also to take along with us the menstruating women, young girls and those staying in seclusion. (Ibn `Aun said, “Or mature women staying in seclusion).” The menstruating women should gathering at the Muslim gatherings and their invocations but should keep away from their Musalla>> and she also narrated: <<We were ordered to bring out our young women, menstruating women and secluded (isolated) women in the religious gatherings and invocation of Muslims on the two `Eids of Fitr and Adhaa. These menstruating women were to keep away from the Musalla. A woman asked, “O Allah’s Apostle ‘ What about one who does not have a Jilbaab. He replied: Then one of her sisters should dress her with one of her Jilbaabs>> as related by Muslim, Ahmad, AlBukhaari, Abu Daawood and At-Tirmidhi. Those in isolation refers to the women who normally stay in their quarters and do not leave their homes unless there is a specific and essential need.
As for the ‘Eid Salaah being Fard Kifaayah and not Fard ‘Ain then this is because it is not called for with an Adhaan or Iqaamah and it is possible that this Salaah would be completed whilst people are distracted from it by some business and the Mu’adhdhin and the one who says the Iqaamah had not reminded them of it. If it had been an obligation upon everyone then the Adhaan and Iqaamah would have been made for it to gather the people for its performance. Jaabir Bin Samurah (ra) related: <<I prayed the two ‘Eids with the Messenger of Allah (saw) a few times without their being an Adhaan or Iqaamah>> as related by Muslim, Abu Daawood, Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaimah. ‘Ataa related that Jaabir Bin ‘Abdullah (ra) told him: <<There is no Adhaan for the Salaah of ‘Eid Al-Fitr either when the Imaam is leaving or after he has left, and there is no Iqaamah or any other call or thing. On that day there is no call and no Iqaamah>> as recorded by Muslim and in a second report recorded by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Daawood and An-Nasaa’i from Jaabir Bin ‘Abdullah (ra) it was said: <<He said: I witnessed the day of ‘Eid with the Messenger of Allah (saw) and he began with the Salaah before the Khutbah (address/speech) without and Adhaan or Iqaamah…>>. Therefore had it been obligatory upon each individual the call for it would have been made so that none would be left behind from it.
As for the time of the ‘Eid prayer it is like the time of the Duhaa prayer which is when the sun rises and is white in colour and the time continues until the Zawaal of the sun when it is midday and the sun is at its highest point in the middle of the sky . Yazeed Bin Hameer ArRahby said: <<‘Abdullah in Busr the companion of the Messenger of Allah (saw) went out with the people on the day of the ‘Eid of Fitr and Adhaa and he bemoaned the delay of the Imaam and said: We have been waiting with nothing to do for this hour of ours and that has been since the Tasbeeh (the time after the Makrooh time in which it is allowed to pray after Fajr, the time of Duhaa)>> as recorded by Abu Daawood and Ibn Maajah.
And we say using different words that the time for the two ‘Eid prayers begins when the sun has risen and its colour has changed to white in the beginning of the day and the permission remains until midday so if the Salaah of ‘Eid has not been performed due to an unforeseen reason then it is performed in the same period of the following day and it is not correct or valid to perform it after midday under any circumstance. Abu ‘Umair Bin Anas related from an uncle of his from amongst the Sahaabah of the Nabi (saw): <<That riders came to the Nabi (saw) bearing testimony to having seen the Hilaal (new moon) on the preceding evening so he (saw) ordered them (the Muslims) to break their fasts and when they woke they set off for their prayer>> as related by Abu Daawood and Ahmad. An-Nasaa’i related it as: <<That a people saw the new moon so they came to the Nabi (saw) (to inform him). Then he (saw) ordered them (the Muslims) to break their fasts after the day had risen and for them to go out for the ‘Eid on the following day>>. Ibn Maajah and Ibn Abi Shaibah reported the version: <<The new moon of Shawaal was not seen by us so we started the next day fasting and then at the end of a day riders approached and bore witness in the presence of the Nabi (saw) to having seen the new moon the night before so the Messenger of Allah (saw) ordered them to break their fasts and for them (the Muslims) to go out for ‘Eid on the following day>>. Had the ‘Eid prayer been permitted after Midday and the later part of the day before the sun had set then the Messenger of Allah (saw) would have prayed it at the time when the riders informed him of the moon sighting and the fast was ordered to be broken in the case where the sighting of the moon had been obscured from them. It said that the riders came: <<After the day had raised>> and <<The riders came at the end of the day>> so there informing him happened after Midday and at the end of the day but before the sun had set and despite this the Messenger of Allah (saw) delayed the Salaah of ‘Eid-ulFitr until the following morning.
The Description of the ‘Eid Salaah:
The ‘Eid Salaah is two Rak’ahs in which seven consecutive Takbeers are said in the first Rak’ah including the initial Takbeer of Ihraam (to start the prayer) and then Al-Faatihah is recited and the Soorah Qaaf Wal Qur’aan Al-Majeed or Soorah Sabbihi-s-ma Rabbika-lA’alaa although it is permitted to recite other than them. Then the Takbeer of Rukoo’ is said followed by the Takbeer to straighten up and then the Takbeer of the Sujood, then he sits for a short sitting and makes the Takbeer again for the second Sujood. He then says the Takbeer to stand up followed by five consecutive Takbeers and then recites Al-Faatihah and then the Soorah Iqtarabat-is-Saa’ah or Soorat-ul-Ghaashiyah although it is permitted to recite other than them. He then does the same as he did in the first Rak’ah and these two Rak’ahs are performed in Jamaa’ah (congregation) and the Imaam recited aloud.
These seven Takbeers are Sunnah Mustahabbah (recommended) and whoever leaves them is not sinful and it does not invalidate his Salaah. ‘Umar (ra) narrated: <<The Salaah of (‘Eid) Al-Adhaa is two Rak’ahs and Salaat-ul-Jum’ah is two Rak’ahs and the Salaah of Al-Fitr is two Rak’ahs and the Salaah of the Musaafir (traveler) is two Rak’ahs, complete and not shortened upon the tongue of your Nabi (saw) and the one who invents has failed>> as recorded by Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Maajah and Al-Bayhaqi and ‘Amru Bin Sh’uaib related from his father from his grandfather: <<That the Nabi (saw) made twelve Takbeers in ‘Eid, seven in the first and five in the last and he did not pray before it or after it>> as recorded by Ahmad, Ad-Daaru Qutni and Al-Bayhaqi. In a version from Abu Daawood it mentioned ‘Eid Al-Fitr, that there were seven Takbeers in the first Rak’ah, five in the second and that there was recital after each of them. ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab (ra) related that he asked Waaqid AlLaithi: <<What did the Messenger of Allah (saw) recite in the Adhaa and Fitr (prayers)? He responded: He used to recite in them Qaaf Wal Quraan Al-Majeed, Iqtarabati-s-Saa’ah and Inshaqqa-l-Qamar>> as related by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Daawood, At-Tirmidhi and Maalik.
Samurah Ibn Jundub (ra) related: <<That the Messenger of Allah (saw) used to recite in the two ‘Eids Sabbihi-sma Rabbika-l-A’alaa and Hal Ataaka Hadeethu-l-Ghaashiyah>> as related by Ahmad and At-Tabaraani and Nu’maan Bin Basheer (ra) narrated: <<That the Nabi (saw) used to recite in the two ‘Eids – and he said ‘Eid (the singular) once – Sabbihi-sma Rabbika-l-A’alaa and Hal Ataaka Hadeethu-l-Ghaashiyah and if ‘Eid coincided with Jum’ah he would recite them>> as related by Ibn Khuzaimah, An-Nasaa’i, Ibn Maajah and Ibn Hibbaan.
And when the Imaam finishes the Salaah he stands in front of the worshippers and it is recommended for him to hold a staff or bow and then makes two Khutbahs and which are like the two Khutbahs of Jum’ah in which he exhorts the people and encouraging them to give Sadaqah on ‘Eid ul-Fitr and explains to them the ruling of sacrifice and encourages them to so on ‘Eid Al-Adhaa and there is no harm to make the Takbeers plentiful within the Khutbah.
The Khutbah of the two ‘Eids is Sunnah and it is therefore not obligatory for the Musalleen those who pray behind the Imaam) to sit and listen to it but rather it is only Mandoob for them. ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Umar (ra) related:
<<That the Messenger of Allah (saw) used to pray the Salaah of Adhaa and Fitr and then make the Khutbah after the Salaah>> as recorded by Al-Bukhaari. Jaabir Bin ‘Abdullah (ra) narrated: <<That the Nabi (saw) went out of the day of Al-Fitr (‘Eid) and he started with the Salaah before the Khutbah>> as recorded by Al-Bukhaari and Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) narrated: <<I witnessed ‘Eid with the Messenger of Allah (saw) and with Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthmaan and all of them performed the prayer before the Khutbah>> as recorded by Al-Bukhaari, Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Daawood and An-Nasaa’i. Ibn Mas’ood (ra) related: <<That the Messenger of Allah (saw) would make two Khutbahs whilst standing and he would separate between them with a sitting>> as recorded by Ibn Khuzaimah and Al-Baraa (ra) related:
<<That the Nabi (saw) made the Khutbah on the day of ‘Eid resting upon a bow he had>> as recorded by Abu Daawood and ‘Ubaidullah Bin ‘Abdullah Bin ‘Utbah narrated: <<It is from the Sunnah that the Imaam who is upon the Minbar (pulpit) on the two days of ‘Eid to make nine Takbeers before the Khutbah and seven after it>> as recorded by Ibn Abi Shaibah and Abdur-Razzaaq.
Al-Baraa Bin ‘Aazib (ra) narrated: <<We were sitting in the place of prayer on the day of Adhaa and then the Messenger of Allah (saw) approached us. He gave the people Salaam and then said: Verily the first ritual of this days of yours is the Salaah. He said: Then he came forward and prayed two Rak’ahs and then made Tasleem. He then turned and faced the people and he was given a bow or a staff and he leaned upon it. He then said Al-Hamdu Lillah and praised Allah and he ordered them and forbade them (in issues) and he said:
Whoever of you has hastened his slaughter then it is only a slaughter that he feeds his family with because the (ritual) slaughter is done only after the Salaah…>> as recorded by Ahmad and Tabaraani. Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) narrated: <<The Messenger of Allah (saw) went out to near the home of Katheer Bin As-Sult where he prayed two Rak’ah and then gave a Khutbah and the Adhaan or Iqaamah were not made>> as related by Ahmad, Al-Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu Daawood and An-Nasaa’i. Jaabir Bin ‘Abdullah (ra) related: <<I observed prayer with the Messenger of Allah (saw) on the ‘Id day. He started with the prayer before the sermon (Khutbah) without Adhaan and Iqaamah. He then stood up leaning on Bilaal, and he commanded(them) to be on guard (against evil for the sake of) Allah, and he exhorted (them) on obedience to Him, and he preached to the people and admonished them. He then walked on till he came to the women and preached to them and admonished them, and asked them to give alms, for most of them are the fuel for Hell. A woman in the middle having a dark spot on the cheek stood up and said: Why is it so, Messenger of Allah? He said:
For you grumble often and show ingratitude to your husbands and deny his goodness. And then they began to give alms out of their jewelry such as their earrings and rings which they threw on to the cloth of Bilaal>> as recorded by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Daawood and AnNasaa’i. ‘Abdullah Bin As-Saa’ib (ra) narrated: <<I was in the company of the Nabi (saw) on the day of ‘Eid. He prayed and said: We have completed the Salaah. So whoever wished to stay for the Khutbah sat and whoever wished to go left>> as related by Ibn Khuzaimah, AlBayhaqi, Abu Daawood and An-Nasaa’i.
And the Messenger of Allah (saw) went to the prayer place of the women after finishing the Khutbah with the men and he exhorted them and reminded them of their obligations and commanded them to give Sadaqah meaning that he would address the men and then go to address the women as was made clear in the Hadeeth from Jaabir Bin ‘Abdullah (ra) that we mentioned above recorded by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Daawood and An-Nasaa’i: << He then walked on till he came to the women and preached to them and admonished them, and asked them to give alms>> and it was also mentioned clearly in the Hadeeth recorded by AlBukhaari from Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) in which he said: <<I went out with the Messenger of Allah (saw) on the day of Fitr or Adhaa and then he prayed and made the Khutbah he then went to the women and exhorted them and reminded them and ordered them to give Sadaqah>> and the Khulafaa used to the same as this.
The situation at that time was such that the Imaam could not make his voice reach the women sitting at the back or behind the vast groupings of the men that used to attend the place of prayer from every direction due to the encouragement given to attend the ‘Eid payers. As such the Imaam would go to the women and approach their place of gathering and address them there and had his voice been capable of reaching them then he would not have needed to do this. This meaning has come in what was related from Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) when he narrated: << I bear testimony to the Messenger of Allah (saw) offering prayer before Khutbah. He (after saying prayer) delivered the Khutbah, and he found that the women could not hear it, so he came to them and exhorted them and preached to them and commanded them to give alms (Sadaqah), and Bilaal had stretched his cloth and the women were throwing rings, earrings and other thing>> as recorded by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Daawood and Al-Bayhaqi.
Due to this I say that with the existence of loudspeakers today it is sufficient for the Imaam to direct some of his speech to the women without the need of going to them i.e. the Imaam specifies and designates a portion of the Khutbah for the women.
The origin of the ‘Eid prayers is that it is performed a place of prayer that is outside of the town and not in the Masaajid. Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri (ra) narrated: <<The Messenger of Allah (saw) went out for Adhaa or Fitr to the place of prayer and then he prayed with them (the people) and then left>> as related by Ibn Khuzaimah and Bakr Bin Mubashshir Al-Ansaari (ra) said: <<I went out early with the companions of the Messenger of Allah (saw) to the Musallaa (place of prayer) on the day of Fitr and the day of Adhaa and we crossed over Batn Bathaan (a place outside the town) and we came to the place of prayer. We then prayed with the Messenger of Allah (saw) and returned from Batn Bathaan back to our houses>> as recorded by Abu Daawood, Al-Haakim and Al-Baghawi. This was mentioned previously in our discussion that dealt with the Messenger of Allah (saw) going out to the place of prayer and it is possible to revise it there.
However if there is a situation that prevents it being performed in an open space such as rain or severe heat then there is no problem for it to be performed in the Masaajid. Abu Yahya ‘Ubaidullah At-Taimi related from Abu Hurairah (ra) who said: <<That they were hit by rain on the day of ‘Eid so the Nabi (saw) prayed ‘Eid with them in the Masjid>> as related by Al-Haakim and it was verified by him as Saheeh and Adh-Dhahabi agreed.
It is Sunnah for the Imaam to take for himself a Sutrah (barrier) to pray towards in the ‘Eid prayers as the Messenger of Allah (saw) used to take special care to have a Sutrah in the ‘Eid prayers. Ibn ‘Umar (ra) narrated: <<That the Nabi (saw) would place a spear in front of him on the day of Fitr or Nahr (Adhaa) and then pray>> as related by Al-Bukhaari and in a version from Ibn Khuzaimah it was added: <<And he used to give the Khutbah after the Salaah>>. In another narration Ibn ‘Umar (ra) said: <<The Prophet used to proceed to the Musalla and he had a short spear carried in front of him which he set in the ground of the Musallaa in front of him and he would pray facing it(as a Sutrah)>> as related by Al-Bukhaari. The issue of taking a Sutrah has been discussed earlier in the section: (The Sutrah of the Musalli) in the chapter: (The Qiblah and the Sutrah).
The Takbeer in the two ‘Eids:
The Takbeer is Sunnah Mustahabbah in the days of Tashreeq as Allah (swt) says:
And remember Allah during the appointed Days (Al-Baqarah 203)
These appointed days are the days of Tashreeq (The days of Hajj) and this was mentioned in the by Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) as reported by At-Tabari in his Tafseer from multiple routes (chains). ‘Eid Al-Adhaa is one of these days representing the meat, food and drink and the Takbeer is legislated from the morning of the day of ‘Eid Al-Adhaa until the last day of Tashreeq.And it is valid to begin it on the morning of the day of ‘Arafah as was related by Muhammad Bin Abi Bakr Ath-Thaqafi who said: << While we were going from Mina to `Arafat, I asked Anas bin Malik, about Talbiya,”How did you use to say Talbiya in the company of the Prophet?” Anas said: “People used to say Talbiya and their saying was not objected to and they used to say Takbir and that was not objected to either>> as recorded by Al-Bukhaari. Ibn Abi Shaibah, AlBayhaqi and Al-Haakim reported from ‘Ali (ra) that he said: <<That he used to make the Takbeer from the morning of the day of ‘Arafah until the ‘Asr of the last day of Tashreeq and make Takbeer after ‘Asr>> and Ibn Abi Shaibah related from Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) that he said:
<<That he sued to make Takbeer from Salaat-ul-Fajr on the day of ‘Arafah until the last day of Tashreeq. He did not make Takbeer at the time of Al-Maghrib. He would say: Allahu Akbar Kabeeran, Allahu Akbar Kabeeran, Allahu Akbar Wa Ajalla, Allahu Akbar Wa lillahil Hamd>>
and this was in ‘Eid Al-Adhaa.
As for ‘Eid Al-Fitr then the Takbeer begins when the sun goes down on the last day of
Ramadhaan and continues until Salaat-ul-‘Eid at the time of Duhaa on the day of ‘Eid as Allah
“Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants
that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah [i.e. to
say Takbeer (Allahu Akbar; Allah is the Most Great] for having guided you so that you may be
grateful to Him” (Al-Baqarah 185).
As form the worded form of the Takbeer on the days of ‘Eid then there has not been reported a single Saheeh or Hasan Hadeeth from the speech of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and all that has been reported are reports from the Sahaabah and the most Saheeh in its Isnaad (chain) and the best to adopt is the following:
(Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Laa Ilaaha Illallah Wallahu Akbar Allahu Akbar Wa Lillahil Hamd)
and this was related by Ibn Abi Shaibah and Ibn-ul-Mundhir from ‘Ali and ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (rah) and there is a second worded form reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah from Ibn ‘Abbaas (ra) which is: (Allahu Akbar Kabeeran, Allahu Akbar Kabeeran, Allahu Akbar Wa Ajalla, Allahu Akbar Wa Lillahil Hamd) as mentioned above. In any case the issue is wide and not restricted.
The Takbeer is not specified for the obligatory or non-obligatory prayers but rather it is an absolute and unrestricted Takbeer for every time and any situation for men and women equally as there has not been stipulated any restriction or specification considered for the Takbeer in the two ‘Eids.
Additional Sunnah acts in the two ‘Eids:
1) Eating on the day of ‘Eid: It is Sunnah to eat before going to the Musallaa (place of prayer) on the day of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr and it is Sunnah to eat after the Salaah on the day of ‘Eid-ul-Adhaa and to eat from what has been sacrificed if a sacrifice has been made and it is Sunnah to eat Tamr (dates) on the day of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr and to eat an odd number of them. Anas (ra) related: <<The Messenger of Allah (saw) would not proceed (for the prayer) on the Day of `Eid−ul−Fitr unless he had eaten some dates. Anas also narrated and addition: He (saw) used to eat an odd number of dates>> as recorded by Al-Bukhaari, Ahmad, Ibn Hibbaan, AlHaakim and Ibn Khuzaimah. Buraidah Al-Aslami (ra) narrated: <<The Nabi (saw) used to not leave on the day of Fitr (for the Salaah) until he had eaten and on the day of Nahr (Adhaa) he would not eat until he had returned (from the Salaah)>> as recorded by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Maajah. And Ibn Khuzaimah related it as: <<That the Messenger of Allah (saw) would not leave on the day of Fitr until he had eaten and he would not eat on the day of Nahr (Adhaa) until he had slaughtered (his sacrifice)>> and Sa’eed Al-Khudri (ra) narrated:
<<The Messenger of Allah (saw) used to have breakfast on the day of Fitr before he would leave his house (for prayer) and he did not pray before the (‘Eid) prayer and when he had performed his Salaah he would pray two Rak’ahs>> as related by Ahmad and Al-Haakim. Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Maajah related it and included: <<When he returned he prayed two Rak’ahs in his house>>.
In Summary I say: That it is Sunnah on the Day of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr for the Muslim to eat some food first and then leave his house for the place of prayer and that it is Sunnah on the day of ‘Eidul-Adhaa for the Muslim to leave his house and go to the Musallaa first, then pray and after that return to his house and eat from the meat of what he has sacrificed if he has it and if not to eat from food that he has in the house.
2) Varying the route for ‘Eid: It is Sunnah for the Imaam and the worshippers to go to the Musallaa upon a certain route and then return from it to their homes taking a different route. Jaabir (ra) narrated: <<The Messenger of Allah (saw) used to take different routes on the day of ‘Eid>> as related by Al-Bukhaari and Ibn ‘Umar (ra) said: <<That the Messenger of Allah (saw) used to leave to go to the two ‘Eids upon a certain path and then return upon another path>> as related by Ahmad, Abu Daawood , Ibn Maajah, Al-Bayhaqi and Al-Haakim and Abu Hurairah (ra) narrated: <<When the Messenger of Allah (saw) went out for the ‘Eids he would return upon a path that was different from the path that he had left from>> as related by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibbaan, Ibn Khuzaimah and Al-Bayhaqi.
3) Singing in ‘Eid:It is Sunnah on the day of ‘Eid to sing, to beat a tambourine or small drum, to blow a musical instrument and to dance with weapons. And it is Sunnah to display joy and happiness in it and there is no problem for people who can sing and dance to accompany the Imaam when he is going to the Musallaa (place of prayer) singing and dancing around the Imaam and behind him. ‘Aa’ishah (ra) said: <<Abu Bakr came to my house while two small Ansaari girls were singing beside me the stories of the Ansaar concerning the Day of Bu’aath.
And they were not singers. Abu Bakr said: Musical instruments (blowing instruments) of Satan in the house of Allah’s Messenger!” It happened on the `Id day and the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: O Abu Bakr! There is an `Eid for every nation and this is our `Eid>> as related by Al-Bukhaari, Muslim and Ahmad. And she (ra) also narrated: <<A group of Abyssinians came to the Masjid and were dancing on the day of ‘Eid. The Messenger of Allah (saw) invited me to see and I placed my head on his shoulder and began to see their sport till it was I who turned away from watching them>> as recorded by Muslim, Ahmad and AnNasaa’i. Qais Bin Sa’d Bin ‘Ubaadah narrated: <<…That the Messenger of Allah (saw) used to have drumming and singing performed for him on the day of ‘Eid>> as reported by Ahmad and Ibn Maajah and Ibn Maajah also reported from ‘Aamir that he said: <<‘Ayyaad Al-Ash’ari witnessed ‘Eid in Al-Anbaar (A place) and said: I do not see you drumming and singing like it was done in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (saw)>>.
4) Staying of the Imaam amongst the people after the prayers of ‘Eid: It is Mustahabb (recommended) for the Imaam wait for a while to leave until the worshippers have left after performing the ‘Eid prayers and to look into and check the affairs of the people and pass Salaam to them. Abdur Rahmaan Bin ‘Uthmaan At-Taimi (ra) narrated: <<I saw the Messenger of Allah (saw) standing in the market on the day of ‘Eid looking at the people (checking in on them) whilst they were passing by>> as related by Ahmad and At-Tabaraani related it with the following wording: <<I saw the Messenger of Allah (saw) when he was leaving from the ‘Eids go to the middle of the Musallaa, and he looked into the people, how they were doing and their characteristics and he would stand for an hour before leaving>>.
5) To not pray before the ‘Eid Salaah or after it in the Musallaa : There is no Sunnah Salaah before the Salaah of the two ‘Eids or after it and this includes the Naafilah in the place of prayer because it is not Mustahabb. However if the Salaah is in the Masjid then it is recommended to remain standing to perform the two Rak’ah of Tahiyyat Al-Masjid because this is attached to the entering of the Masjid. However there is no Tahiyyah in the place of prayer which is out in the open land or outside the Masaajid. So when the Muslim attends the place of prayer he sits without praying and then when he has prayed the ‘Eid Salaah and listened to the Khutbah he leaves the place of prayer without praying any further Rak’ah.
This is the Sunnah in the two ‘Eids and Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri (ra) related in regards to this:
<<The Nabi (saw) prayed two Rak’ah for the prayer of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr and he did not pray before or after it and then he approached the women and Bilaal was with him. He then ordered them to give Sadaqah and they threw their necklaces and bangles (as Sadaqah)>> as recorded by Al-Bukhaari, Muslim, Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah and Abu Daawood. Ibn ‘Umar (ra) said: <<That he went out on the day of ‘Eid and did not pray before it or after it and he mentioned that this is what the Nabi (saw) did>> as related by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and AlHaakim.
Excerpt from Ahkam as-Siyam by Sheikh Abu Iyaas, member of Hizb ut-Tahrir.