Prophet Muhammad (sall Alahu alaihi wasallam) started the Da’wah in Makkah and later made hijrah (migration) to Madina and established the Islamic State. It was during this time that the Prophet called people to Islam.
The Prophet (saw) started his Da’wah in Makkah by calling people to “Laa ilaha illAllah, Muhammadur Rasool Allah.” The first part of the Shahadah means, “There is none worthy of worship except Allah” – The word ‘illah’ in Arabic means the worshipped or the one who is obeyed. Therefore the first part of Shahadah includes the following;
- Negating the worship of or obedience to any one
- This worship or obedience has to be exclusively to Allah SWT. This means that everyone has to submit to Allah SWT, has to worship Allah SWT and adhere to Allah and Allah SWT alone.
One must note that the Quraish did not deny Allah SWT as the Creator. They did not argue in this aspect of Tawheed. Allah SWT Says: “If you ask them who created the heavens and the earth, surely, they will say Allah.” (Surah Luqman: 25)
Abdullah was a well known name in Makkah, which meant ‘servant of Allah.’ Prior to Islam, many individuals used to call people to the rejection of idols. Quraish did not bother with them and neither were they threatened by these individuals. Waraqah bin Nawfal was one of the few who was the cousin of Khadija RA, the first wife of the Prophet (saw). Ummayah bin Al-Salt, Zain bin Nufail, Ubaidullah bin Jahsh are just a few of the individuals who had discussions in Makkah without receiving any oppression from the Makkans.
When Prophet Muhammad (saw) started his Da’wah, Quraish initially thought he was just another preacher calling people to the worship of Allah SWT. But it did not take them long to understand the difference between his Da’wah and that is when they started attacking it with intolerance and oppression. So what was different between Prophet Muhammad’s Da’wah and that of Waraqah bin Nawfal and the other individuals? The new Da’wah was calling for a change, a major change of the whole society along with its values, beliefs, ideas, relationships, culture and way of life. Such a change is based on the Tawheed with its comprehensive meaning. This Tawheed means;
- Allah and Allah SWT Alone is the Creator – Tawheed Rububiyah.
- Our obedience and adherence should be exclusively to Allah. We have to obey Him and Him alone. We have to submit to Him alone. We have to worship Him alone. We have to seek refuge in Allah SWT alone – Tawheed Uluhiyah.
- Only Allah SWT has His names and attributes:
o He has no partner or any equal
o He and only He is Ar-Rahman
o He and only He is the Legislator
o He and only He is the Sustainer
o He and only He is the Awwal – Tawheed Asma wa sifat. This belief is the basis for every law and system in Islam.
“To Him belongs the creating and the commanding.” (Surah al-Araf: 54)
“Does man think that he would be left (without guidance)?” (Surah al-Qiyamat: 26)
“Do you think that We Created you for play?” (Surah al-Mu’minoon: 115)
“The commanding (ruling) belongs to none but Allah.” (Surah Yusuf: 40)
Quraish understood very well what this meant; such an Aqeedah cannot be separated from life and requires a complete change of the whole structure of society. The society and all individuals have to be ruled by this Deen; this way of life where everything has to be organised comprehensively by this system – such a system recognises Allah SWT as the only Creator and Legislator.
If we go back to the Seerah, we can see that the Prophet (saw) was not a social reformer, he was not an economic developer nor was he a preacher. He was calling to change the society with its beliefs and relationships and to establish a new society and nation in which sovereignty belongs only to Allah SWT. The Makkan society declined to embrace this new message, once Prophet Muhammad (saw) realised this he geared the Da’wah in a new stage, this is when he started seeking Nusrah from people and the material support to establish the Islamic authority. The authority was to carry the responsibility of implementing Islam in society and carrying Islam to other nations and people.
It is reported that he approached a tribe called ‘Amer Banu Saasah’ who were willing to provide Prophet Muhammad (saw) with the support he requested but under one condition; “will the Amer be in our hands after your death?” The Prophet refused this so they withdrew their deal. We can see from this that they were not seeking Prophethood since they knew Muhammad was the last and final Messenger, what they were seeking after his death was the authority; they expected to be rulers after his death and Prophet Muhammad (saw) refused to compromise with this.
Finally, the people of Madina were ready to provide him unconditionally with what the Prophet was seeking. He then migrated to Madina and established the Islamic State. It was after the migration to Madina that Ayaah’s of rules and regulations were being revealed to him and he started implementing those rules. The Prophet was not just a Prophet in Madina; he was also a judge, a leader, a military commander and a Head of the State. Soon a unique State had emerged and this State was firmly based on “Laa ilaha illAllah, Muhamadur Rasool Allah.”
After the death of the beloved Prophet, the Sahabah started discussing and debating who would be leader in order to succeed him in his position as Head of the State. Prophethood was not in question as they all believed that no one would succeed him in Prophethood. It was reported that the Prophet died on a Monday, Abu Bakr was chosen as a Khalifah on Tuesday and the burial of the Prophet took place on Wednesday night (Imam Malik reported his burial took place on Tuesday night but not before choosing Abu Bakr as Khalifah). Abu Bakr delivered a speech after being chosen as Khalifah, after this speech they started washing the body of the Prophet (saw) on Tuesday evening. After washing his body there was a debate as to where he should be buried and they agreed that he should be buried in the place of his death – Abu Bakr was the one who settled this debate.
Abu Bakr starting implementing Islam and did not delay in resolving many disputes immediately, the following are a few to name;
- The inheritance of the Prophet (saw)
- The Prophet’s burial
- Fighting against those who rebelled against the State and rejected Islam
- Fighting against those who refused to pay the zakat/jizya to the State
This illustrates that without Khilafah, there would be no Islam at all. That is why Abu Bakr Bin Al-Arabi stated that the most serious disaster in Muslim history occurred at the death of the Prophet (saw) and the consequences which lead after that. He also went on to say that choosing Abu Bakr as Khalifah was the safety valve that saved Islam and the Muslims (see Al Awasim Min Al-Qawasim by Qadi Abu Bakr Bin Al-Arabi). It is the Khilafah which maintained Islam and the Muslim unity. It was the migration to Madinah which established the prayer; Muslims prayed secretly in Makkah but it was in Madinah when the prayer was publically well established. Ibn Hisham states in the Seerah, “When the Prophet (saw) was assured and satisfied in Madinah and when his brothers from muhajiroon were gathered with his brothers from the Ansars, Islam was firmly established so the prayer was established, the zakat and fasting were obligated, the hudud (punishments) were established, halal and haraam was obligated and Islam was in power among them.”
It is a fact that Islam does not separate between religion and politics. Such separation means separating Islam from life, which is the idea of secularists. No one can imagine Islam without politics or a total implementation of Islam without Islamic authority, or the Khilafah. All Muslims agreed that Khilafah is compulsory and it must be present in order to live fully according to Islam.
Islamic authority is part of Islam by which the complete ibadah (worship) to Allah SWT will be established, and without it (Laa ilaha illAllah, Muhamadur Rasool Allah), will not be established in its total and comprehensive meaning. Those who claim otherwise should examine their belief because believing in the Shahadah does not mean to recognise Allah SWT as the creator – this is not complete Tawheed. Those who undermine the Khilafah are trying to sever part of Tawheed. Without Khilafah or Islamic authority, Islam will not be established in its totality and without establishing Islam; no one can claim that the total obedience to Allah has been established. If this obedience is not established in its totality, then Tawheed al-Uluhiyah is not firmly established and consequently not firmly embraced. Anyone who propagates such ideas has to analyse his/her belief and must think again about what he/she claims, for he/she is clearly going against the text and against what the Sahabah agreed upon. Consequently, he is not from as-Salf as-Saleh even if he has a big beard and she has a long siwak.
One must realise that following and supporting other ideology’s such as Democracy and Dictatorship which are alongside capitalism, secularism, liberalism, tribalism and feminism, will not be following Islam in its totality; religion and life are separated in these idea’s, there are man-made laws which are constantly being changed and reviewed, hence, going against Allah’s only way, which He had perfected during the time of Prophet Muhammad and He named this way of life as Islam. We must then realise what life are we living, what are we representing and where are we heading? A life without Khilafah and Islamic Authority is a life without Islam in its totality, a life without complete implementation of Allah’s Laws and a life without complete Tawheed.