The Essential Elements of the Islamic Disposition (Nafsiyah) issued by Hizb ut Tahir and published in Beirut, Lebanon in 1425 AH.
The book seeks to help the believers reaffirm their Iman in Allah (swt) such that our tongues are moist with the remembrance of Allah, that our hearts are filled with fear of Allah and that our limbs hasten towards the good deeds.
Weeping from the fear of Allah almighty is recommended (mandoob) and the evidence for this is the Kitab and Sunnah:
As for the Kitab:
أَفَمِنْ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ تَعْجَبُون.َ
وَتَضْحَكُونَ وَلاَ تَبْكُون.َ
“Do you then wonder at this recital (the Qur’an)? And you laugh at it and weep not.” [TMQ an-Najm:59-60]
وَيَخِرُّونَ لِلأَذْقَانِ يَبْكُونَ وَيَزِيدُهُمْ خُشُوعًا.
“And they fall down on their faces weeping and it adds to their humility.” [TMQ Al-Israa`:109]
تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا.
“When the Verses of the Most Beneficent (Allah) were recited unto them, they fell down prostrating and weeping.” [TMQ Maryam:58]
As for the Sunnah:
• Ibn Mas’ud narrated that the Prophet said to me:
«اقرأ علي القرآن، قلت يا رسول الله أقرأ عليك وعليك أنزل؟ قال إني أحب أن أسمعه من غيري، فقرأت
عليه سورة النساء حتى جئت إلى هذه الآية ( فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَى هَؤُلاَءِ شَهِيدًا) قال حسبك الآن. فالتفت إليه فإذا عيناه تذرفان».
“Recite the Qur’an to me.” He said to the Prophet, ‘Should I recite the Quran before you whereas it has been revealed unto you?’ At this the Prophet said, ‘I love it more to hear the Quran from someone else.’ Then ‘Abdullah b. Masud recited the chapter of ‘An-Nisa’. When he recited the verse,
‘How will it be them, when We shall bring out of each community, a witness, and We shall bring thee against these as witnesses..’ (4:41), the Prophet said, ‘This is enough.’ When Ibn Masud saw the face of the Prophet, he saw tears rolling down both his eyes.” (Agreed upon).
• Anas narrated: the Messenger of Allah (saw) addressed us such that I have not heard the like before:
«لو تعلمون ما أعلم لضحكتم قليلاً ولبكيتم كثيراً، فغطى أصحاب رسول الله وجوههم ولهم خنين».
“If you knew what I know you would have laughed less and cried more. So the companions covered their faces as they were crying and sniffling.”
• Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
«سبعة يظلهم الله في ظله يوم لا ظل إلا ظله … ورجل ذكر الله خالياً ففاضت عيناه».
“Allah will give shade to seven, on the Day when there will be no shade but His… and a person who remembers Allah in seclusion and his eyes become flooded with tears.”
• Ibn ‘Umar narrated when the pain of the Messenger of Allah (saw) increased he was asked about who would lead the prayer. He said:
«مروا أبا بكر فليصل بالناس، قالت عائشة إن أبا بكر رجل رقيق إذا قرأ غلبه البكاء … »
“Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer.” ‘Ayisha said, “Abu Bakr is a soft-hearted man and he would be over-powered by his weeping.”
This is the narration of al-Bukhari, in the narration of Muslim the text is:
«قالت فقلت يا رسول الله إن أبا بكر رجل رقيق، إذا قرأ القرآن لا يملك دمعه …»
‘Ayisha said: “O Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr is a soft hearted man and if he recites Qura’an he will not be able to control his weeping…”
• Anas narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said to Ubay b. Ka’b: “Allah ‘azza wajalla commanded that I recite to you the ayah:
لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا
“Those who disbelieved…” [TMQ Al-Bayyinah:1]” He said: “Allah is referring to me?” He said: “Yes”. So Ubay wept.
• Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
«لا يلج النار رجل بكى من خشية الله حتى يعود اللبن في الضرع، ولا يجتمع غبار في سبيل الله ودخان جهنم».
“One who weeps out of fear of Allah, will not enter the Hell till milk returns back in the udder; and the dust raised on account of fighting in the path of Allah and the smoke of Hell will never exist together.”
Reported at-Tirmizi who said the hadith is hasan sahih.
• Narrated by ‘Abd Allah b. Shakheer who said:
وهو يصلي ولجوفه أزيز كأزيز المرجل من البكاء». r «أتيت رسول الله
“I came to Messenger of Allah when he was performing prayers. He was sobbing and his chest sounded like a boiling kettle.”
An-Nawawi said: “This hadith has been reported by Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizi in ash-Shamaa`il with a sound isnad.”
• Narrated by Ibrahim b. Abd ar-Rahman b. ‘Awf that some food was brought to ‘Abd ar-Rahman b. ‘Awf whilst he was fasting, so he said:
«قتل مصعب بن عمير (رضي الله عنه) وهو خير مني، كفن في بردة، إن غطي رأسه بدت رجلاه، وإن غطي رجلاه بدا رأسه، وأراه قال وقتل حمزة وهو خير مني، ثم بسط لنا من الدنيا ما بسط، أو قال أعطينا من الدنيا ما أعطينا، وقد خشينا أن تكون حسناتنا عجلت لنا، ثم جعل يبكي حتى ترك الطعام».
“Mus’ab b. ‘Umayr has been killed. He was better than me. We did not find anything to shroud him except if it covered his head his legs were left uncovered, and if it covered his legs his head was left uncovered. Hamzah has been killed and he was better than me. Then Allah endowed us with the (bounties of) world. I really fear that our reward has been bestowed on us early (in this world).” He began to cry and sob and could not eat.
• Al-‘Irbaad b. Saariyah said:
«وعظنا رسول الله موعظة وجلت منها القلوب وذرفت منها العيون … »
“The Messenger of Allah gave us a sermon by which our hearts were filled with fear and tears came to our eyes….” Reported by Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizi. The latter said the hadith is hasan sahih.
• Anas reported that the Prophet (saw) said:
«من ذكر الله ففاضت عيناه من خشية الله، حتى يصيب الأرض من دموعه، لم يعذب يوم القيامة».
“The one who remembers Allah and his tears flow from the fear of Allah, until his tears fall on the ground he will not be punished on the Day of Judgment.” Reported by al-Haakim who declared it sound and az-Zahabi agreed.
• Abu Rayhaana said: We went on an expedition with Allah’s Messenger (saw) and I heard him say:
«حرمت النار على عين دمعت من خشية الله، حرمت النار على عين سهرت في سبيل الله ونسيت الثالثة وسمعت بعد أنه قال حرمت النار على عين غضت عن محارم الله».
“The fire is forbidden to the eye which weeps from the fear of Allah, stays awake in the path of Allah (Jihad) and I forgot the third, but afterwards I heard that he said ‘the eye which lowered it gaze from that which Allah has forbidden to see.”
Reported by Ahmad and al-Haakim. The latter declared the hadith as sound and az-Zahabi and an-Nasaa`i agreed with him on this. The narration here is that of a-Nasaa`i).
• Narrated by Ibn Abu Mulaykah; we sat with ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Amr in Hijr who said:
«ابكوا فإن لم تجدوا بكاء فتباكوا، لو تعلمون العلم لصلى أحدكم حتى ينكسر ظهره، ولبكى حتى ينقطع صوته».
“Weep, and if you cannot weep, then pretend to weep (out of fear of Allah) I swear by Him in whose hand my life is that if any of you really knew, you would plead until your voice went, and pray until your back was broken.”
• It has been narrated that ‘Ali said:
«ما كان فينا فارس يوم بدر غير المقداد، ولقد رأيتنا وما فينا قائم إلا رسول الله تحت شجرة يصلي ويبكي حتى أصبح».
“None amongst us had a horse on the day of Badr except al-Miqdad and I saw no one praying the night except the Messenger of Allah who prayed under the tree and wept until the morning.” Reported by Ibn Khuzamyah in his Sahih.
• Thawban narrated that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
«طوبى لمن ملك نفسه، ووسعه بيته، وبكى على خطيئته».
“Blessed is the one who controlled himself, his house accommodated him and wept for his sins.” Reported by at-Tabaraani who declared it hasan.